//Получаем дочерние подразделения
$positions = get_children( array(
   'post_parent' => $post->ID,
   'post_type' => 'position',
   'numberposts' => 99,
   'post_status' => 'publish'
));

if($positions) {
   ?>
      <section id="branche_positions" class="section_cp">
         <h1>Посты</h1>
         <ul>
          <?php
           foreach($positions as $item) {
            ?>
             <li>
              <a href="<?php echo get_permalink ($item->ID); ?>"><?php echo get_the_title($item->ID); ?></a>
             </li>
            <?php
           }
          ?>
         </ul>
      </section>
   <?php
}